Lanceleaf Coreopsis, Tickseed, or Coreopsis
(Asteraceae [also known as Compositae] - Daisy Family)
- small herbaceous perennial
- matures at a maximum of about 2' tall by 2' wide, but cultivars are often slightly more compact
- radiating clump growth habit
- full sun to partial sun
- prefers moist or dry, well-drained soils of moderate to average fertility in full sun; readily adaptable to poor, dry soils in hot, humid climates, but permanently moist, wet, or poorly drained soils quickly cause crown rot or stem rot
- propagated primarily by crown division, but also by seeds
- Daisy Family, with crown rot being the primary disease problem
- abundantly available in container form
- clumps will need division every two to three years to reduce lodging, maintain vigor, and promote compactness; the woody center of the crown should be discarded during this process
- lush foliage is medium to dark green and sparsely pubescent, with the largest basal clump leaves up to 10" long, but opposite along the flowering stems and diminishing in size to about 2" long
- most leaves are lanceolate (hence the common name), oblong, or narrow spatulate; however, some along the middle portion of the flowering stems are deeply incised with several linear lobes, making them appear to be pinnately compound
- in protected sites or under leaf cover, miniature foliage that emerges in Autumn from the crown is semi-evergreen during the Winter
- ray flowers (analagous to petals) are very showy, being golden-yellow to yellow-orange in color, while the disk flowers (that turn into seeds) are a very similar color; the entire flower ranges from 2" to 4" in diameter, with a profusion of showy flowers in early Summer
- some cultivars are double flowering (in which the ray flowers extend into the center of the infloresence, like a florist's Carnation), some are semi-double flowering, while other hybrids have elements of red or brown at the base of the single-flowering ray flowers
- inflorescences are on long stems and can be used as cut flowers, but they wilt quickly after being cut and must be transferred to water immediately
- deadheading after the initial flush of flowers in Summer promotes a lighter rebloom later in the season
- seeds may resemble ticks (hence another common name), borne in profusion at the center of each spent flower; deadheading is again recommended to promote rebloom
- lanceolate leaves from the basal clump are complemented by smaller, deeply sinuate, pseudo-compound leaves on the flowering stalks, which bear a dense crop of composite flowers in early Summer, yellow-orange in color and single- or double-flowering, emerging from large floral buds and transitioning to plump fruits, which when mature have tick-shaped seeds
- stems are stout, becoming procumbent later in the season, and may develop stem rot if the clump is old, wide, and has poor air circulation
- raised planters, group or mass plantings, entranceways, beds, foundations, borders, and naturalized areas
- medium texture
- thick density
- showy Summer-long yellow flowering (if deadheaded)
- lush, attractive foliage
- excellent for naturalized areas, where it will spread by self-sowing
- clump division is needed every third year (as the flowering stalks will lodge [flop over] with clump maturation and will sometimes also develop stem rot, or will lodge if overfertilization or overwatering occurs]
- although a perennial, this plant will soon die out if soil conditions are overly moist to wet (especially if poor drainage occurs in Winter), as crown rot can be a persistent problem
- zones 4 to 9
- native to the Southeastern United States
- perennials with showy flowering throughout the Summer, especially those with warm floral colors (Coreopsis verticillata, Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora, Helenium autumnale, Heliopsis helianthoides, Hemerocallis, Kniphofia, Rudbeckia nitida, etc.)
- Coreopsis lanceolata is used interchangeably in the nursery industry with Coreopsis grandiflora; the cultivars noted below are hybrids with at least one of these two species as a parent, if not both:
- Coreopsis 'Baby Sun' - the true cultivar has single golden-yellow flowers to 3" wide, maturing at 1.5' tall and 1.5' wide; however, another form is being sold in the nursery industry under the same name which has a distinctive band of red at the base of each golden-yellow ray flower, similar in appearance to Coreopsis tinctoria, which is an annual
- Coreopsis 'Early Sunrise' - double yellow-orange flowers to 3" wide, maturing at 1.5' tall and 1.5' wide; comes true from seed, and very popular
- Coreopsis 'Sunray' - double golden-yellow flowers to 4" wide, maturing at 1.5' tall and 1.5' wide, also very popular
- Coreopsis translates as "resembling a bug", referring to the appearance of the mature seeds, which are often said to resemble ticks.
- lanceolata translates as "lanceolate", in reference to the shape of the leaves.
- grandiflora translates as "large flowering".
- Lanceleaf Coreopsis is one of the best perennials for golden-yellow flowers in Summer.
- Coreopsis lanceolata or Coreopsis grandiflora are popular clump-forming perennials whose hybrid cultivars have lush foliage and bear golden-yellow to yellow-orange flowers for most of the Summer; they differ substantially from Coreosis verticillata, which has diminutive fine-textured leaves, a wider range of shades of yellow in its cultivars, and its stoloniferous spreading habit.
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